Arduino led bar demo & sketch for 64×16 Canton electronics LED matrix

Module No.:  TB275

//#include <AT24Cxx.h>//no lib needed since we will only use basic functions in 1 page at first

// Author: Phil Kaziewicz 19th July 2014,
// Jan Griffioen did quite some ADDITIONS july-nov 2014 such as RTC, temp, humidity, barmetric pressure, stringtext in time, funny roll-ups etc and voidstructuring
// 64×16 LED display matrix test code
// based upon original code from canton-electonics
// Arduino 1.0.6 NANO V4.0 (with the 2008 Windows drivers; these work with W8.1;

// add buttons or wire bridges for intensity (if possible), speed, language, time up and time down (both last buttons work more agressively when kept pushing…)
// will also try to adapt rotary switches for settings…
// D9& D?? are free for this
// A1 and A3, A6 and higher are free for this, preferrably with a resistor network like on the LCD shields, that should only consume 1 A-pin…
// Add a device for proximity and connect to a ‘button’ input for something like speed or intensity// crash,…
// The development is done with a Nano, after all is OK the pro mini will be glued to the rear of the board and one time programmed via a USB to TTL converter.
// Re-programming only on request!

#include <dht.h>

// Example testing sketch for various DHT humidity/temperature sensors
// Written by ladyada, public domain

#define DHTPIN 16 // what pin we’re connected to; A2=D16

// Uncomment whatever type you’re using!
#define DHTTYPE DHT11 // DHT 11
//#define DHTTYPE DHT22 // DHT 22 (AM2302)
//#define DHTTYPE DHT21 // DHT 21 (AM2301)

// Connect pin 1 (on the left) of the sensor to +5V
// NOTE: If using a board with 3.3V logic like an Arduino Due connect pin 1
// to 3.3V instead of 5V! with shield 5V is OK
// Connect pin 2 of the sensor to whatever your DHTPIN is
// Connect pin 4 (on the right) of the sensor to GROUND
// Connect a 10K resistor from pin 2 (data) to pin 1 (power) of the sensor

// Initialize DHT sensor for normal 16mhz Arduino
DHT dht(DHTPIN, DHTTYPE, 10);
// NOTE: For working with a faster chip, like an Arduino Due or Teensy, you
// might need to increase the threshold for cycle counts considered a 1 or 0.
// You can do this by passing a 3rd parameter for this threshold. It’s a bit
// of fiddling to find the right value, but in general the faster the CPU the
// higher the value. The default for a 16mhz AVR is a value of 6. For an
// Arduino Due that runs at 84mhz a value of 30 works.
// Example to initialize DHT sensor for Arduino Due:
//DHT dht(DHTPIN, DHTTYPE, 30);

//inputs for the select switches are: A1= Select, D9= Up and D7= Down

#define SelectPIN 15 //(=A1 when used digital) // what pin we’re connected to input for the select switch: A1= Select
#define UpPIN 9 // what pin we’re connected to input for the select switch: D9= Up
#define DownPIN 7 // what pin we’re connected to input for the select switch: D7= Down

#include <avr/pgmspace.h>
#include <Wire.h>
byte high = 0x00, low=0x00;//used for the AT24C32 chip addressing, no lib needed here
#include “RTClib.h”

RTC_DS1307 rtc; // this time module 1307 is connected to SCL (A5 on Nano) and SDA (A4 on Nano)
//#define AT24C32 0x50 //no lib needed here , address is correct though

boolean (Select)=false;
boolean (Up)=false;
boolean (Down)=false;
boolean (DEBUG)=true;

#define BMP085_ADDRESS 0x77 // I2C address of barometer BMP085 for barometer/temp/hight; this is also connected to SCL (A5 on Nano) and SDA (A4 on Nano)

const unsigned char OSS = 0; // Oversampling Setting

// Calibration values
int ac1;
int ac2;
int ac3;
unsigned int ac4;
unsigned int ac5;
unsigned int ac6;
int b1;
int b2;
int mb;
int mc;
int md;

//int wait; //, integer between 7 and 18, memory chip position low 1 and 2
int typeofclock; //, small clock or big clock 0 or 1 position low 3
int fun; //, with fun or just readouts 0 or 1 position low 3
int minormax; //, minimum screen or all of it 0 or 1 position low 4
int matrixwidth = 64;
int matrixheight = 16;

// b5 is calculated in bmp085GetTemperature(…), this variable is also used in bmp085GetPressure(…)
// so …Temperature(…) must be called before …Pressure(…).
long b5;

// Connections to board
const byte latchPin = 8;
const byte clockPin = 12;
const byte data_R1 = 10;
const byte data_R2 = 11;
const byte en_74138 = 2;
const byte la_74138 = 3;
const byte lb_74138 = 4;
const byte lc_74138 = 5;
const byte ld_74138 = 6;
byte ScanRow = 0;
unsigned long counter;
const int pinRandom = A0; // better to get this than use the standard C randomizer.. A0 can be freed if needed for anything else….

//const int wait = 100; // In milliseconds
const int length = 8;
int x[length], y[length];
int ptr, nextPtr;
int wait = 12; // In milliseconds (15 is nice), must be between 8 and 18
//int inc = -1;
int resetcounter=1;
//int waittemp = 15;

// declare the strings:
//String Shour,Shour1,Sminute,SdayOfWeek,Sday,Smonth,Sdate,Syear,ENtijd,Sminutesingle,Stotal;

/* #######################################
# RTC_DS1307 Datatypes (KEYWORD1)
#######################################

DateTime KEYWORD1
RTC_DS1307 KEYWORD1
RTC_Millis KEYWORD1

#######################################
# Methods and Functions (KEYWORD2)
#######################################

year KEYWORD2
month KEYWORD2
day KEYWORD2
hour KEYWORD2
minute KEYWORD2
second KEYWORD2
dayOfWeek KEYWORD2
secondstime KEYWORD2
unixtime KEYWORD2
begin KEYWORD2
adjust KEYWORD2
isrunning KEYWORD2
now KEYWORD2

#######################################
# Constants (LITERAL1)
#######################################
*/

char* dayNameEN[] = {
“g “, “Monday”, “Tuesday”, “Wednesday”, “Thursday”, “Friday”, “Saturday”, “Sunday”};
char* hourNameEN[] = {“twelve”, “one”, “two”, “three”, “four”, “five”, “six”, “seven”, “eight”, “nine”, “ten”, “eleven”, “twelve”, “one”};
// “two”, “three”, “four”, “five”, “six”, “seven”, “eight”, “nine”, “ten”, “eleven”, “twelve”};
char* monthNameEN[] = {“G “, ” January”, “February”, “March”, “April”, “May”, “June”, “July”, “August”, “September”, “October”, “November”, “December”};

byte buffer[256] = { // Display buffer (which is scanned by the interrupt timer) of 8×32 bytes
0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
};

#include <fontsBIGREDLED.h>

// xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
// Routine to print a single character in one of 8 columns
// Inputs:
// x is one of (0,16,24,32,40,48,56), for shifting purposes 64 should als be available….
// y (0 to 16 or 24 depending upon font size),
// n is either (0 to 9) or an ascii value, ascii as ([“”])??
// font=0 for big font, 2 for small font,
// inverse is true for an inverted character
void drawChar(uint16_t x, uint16_t y, byte n, byte font, boolean inverse) {
byte charbytes[16], fontrows, xover8 = x >> 3;
int index;
if (0 != (x % 8)) return; // x not a multiple of 8
if ((n > 9) && (n < 32)) return; // invalid character
if (font == 2) fontrows = 16; else fontrows = 8;
if ((n >= 0) && (n <= 9)) index = (n + 16) * fontrows; else index = (n – 32) * fontrows; // go to the right code for this character

// addressing start at buffer and add y (rows) * (WIDTH is 64 so WIDTH/8) is 8 plus (x / 8) is 0 to 7
byte *pDst = buffer + (y << 3) + xover8;
for (byte i = 0; i < fontrows; i++) { // fill up the charbytes array with the right bits
if (font == 0) charbytes[i] = pgm_read_byte(&(font8x8_basic[index + i]));
// if (font==1) charbytes[i] = pgm_read_byte(&(font8x8_extended[index+i]));
if (font == 2) charbytes[i] = pgm_read_byte(&(font8x16_basic[index + i]));
// reverse bit order for fonts 0 and 1
if (font != 2) {
charbytes[i] = (charbytes[i] & 0xF0) >> 4 | (charbytes[i] & 0x0F) << 4;
charbytes[i] = (charbytes[i] & 0xCC) >> 2 | (charbytes[i] & 0x33) << 2;
charbytes[i] = (charbytes[i] & 0xAA) >> 1 | (charbytes[i] & 0x55) << 1;
};
if (inverse) charbytes[i] = ~charbytes[i];
};
const byte *pSrc = charbytes; // point at the first set of 8 pixels
for (byte i = 0; i < fontrows; i++) {
*pDst = *pSrc; // populate the destination byte
pDst += 8; // go to next row on buffer
pSrc++; // go to next set of 8 pixels in character
}
};
// xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
void moveLeft(byte pixels, byte rowstart, byte rowstop) { // routine to move certain rows on the screen “pixels” pixels to the left
byte row, column;
short unsigned int address;
for (column = 0; column < 8; column++) {
for (row = rowstart; row < rowstop; row++) {
address = (row << 3) + column; /// right here!
if (column == 7)
buffer[address] = buffer[address] << pixels; // shuffle pixels left on last column and fill with a blank
else { // shuffle pixels left and add leftmost pixels from next column
byte incomingchar = buffer[address + 1];
buffer[address] = buffer[address] << pixels;
for (byte x = 0; x < pixels; x++) {
buffer[address] += ((incomingchar & (128 >> x)) >> (7 – x)) << (pixels – x – 1);
};
}
}
}
};
// xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
// set a single pixel on or off
void setPixel(byte x, byte y, byte colour) {
bitWrite(buffer[(y << 3) + (x >> 3)], 7 – (x & 7), colour);
};
// xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
void drawRect(byte x1, byte y1, byte x2, byte y2, byte colour) {
for (byte x = x1; x <= x2; x++) {
setPixel(x, y1, colour);
setPixel(x, y2, colour);
};
for (byte y = y1; y <= y2; y++) {
setPixel(x1, y, colour);
setPixel(x2, y, colour);
};
};

//start VOID =====================================================================================
void drawLine(byte x1, byte y1, byte x2, byte y2, byte colour) {

//Draws a line, between the points (x1, y1) and (x2, y2) in this graphics context’s coordinate system.
//Parameters:
// x1 – the first point’s x coordinate.
// y1 – the first point’s y coordinate.
// x2 – the second point’s x coordinate.
// y2 – the second point’s y coordinate.

for (byte x = x1; x <= x2; x++) {
setPixel(x, y1, colour);
setPixel(x, y2, colour);
};
for (byte y = y1; y <= y2; y++) {
setPixel(x1, y, colour);
setPixel(x2, y, colour);
};
};

// xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
void shiftOut(byte row) { // fast routine to shove out 8 columns into two rows via board’s shift registers
for (byte column = 0; column < 8; column++) {
byte index = column + (row << 3);
for (byte i = 0; i < 8; i++) {
PORTB &= ~(3 << (data_R1 – 8)); // data_R2 is LOW; data_R1 is LOW;
PORTB &= ~(1 << (clockPin – 8)); // digitalWrite(clockPin,LOW);
PORTB |= !((buffer[index] >> (7 – i)) & 0x01) << (data_R1 – 8); // top set of rows
PORTB |= !((buffer[index + 128] >> (7 – i)) & 0x01) << (data_R2 – 8); // bottom set of rows
PORTB |= 1 << (clockPin – 8); // digitalWrite(clockPin,HIGH);
};
};
};

// Scan a pair of rows on to the display from “buffer” via the interrupt
ISR(TIMER2_COMPA_vect) {
cli();
digitalWrite(en_74138, HIGH); // Turn off display
shiftOut(ScanRow); // Shift out 8 columns
digitalWrite(latchPin, LOW);
digitalWrite(latchPin, HIGH);
PORTD = (ScanRow << 3) | (PORTD & 0X87); // Highlight row: pins 3 4 5 6 (la_74138 lb_74138 lc_74138 ld_74138)
digitalWrite(en_74138, LOW); // Turn on display
ScanRow++; // Do the next pair of rows next time this routine is called
if (ScanRow == 16) ScanRow = 0;
sei();
};

//start VOID =====================================================================================
void wacht(int wachttijd)
{
for (int a = 0; a < wachttijd; a++ )
{
int val = digitalRead(SelectPIN); // must be Select read the input pin

if (val==LOW) // if key Select is pressed
{
Select=true; // set a binary state high here , then
return; //return to loop;
}

delay(1);
}
}

//======================================================================================================================================================
//void(* resetFunc) (void) = 0;//declare reset function at address 0

//======================================================================================================================================================
void runscreen(String Stotal)
{
int stringlength= (Stotal.length()+1);//+1
char timestring[stringlength];
Stotal.toCharArray(timestring,(stringlength));
static int count = 0;

for (int count = 0; count <= sizeof(timestring) -2; count++)//was timestring-1 but then there is 1 blank space in front of each roll
{
drawChar(56, 0, timestring[count % (sizeof(timestring)-1 )], 2, false);//timestring-1
// drawChar(56, 8, timestring[count % (sizeof(timestring)-1 )], 0, false);//timestring-1
for (byte i = 0; i < 9; i++)// move the text 9 pixels (not 8 because it looks better) to the left
{
moveLeft(1, 2, 32);
wacht(wait);
}
}
}
//XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
void writescreensmall(String above, String under, int height)
{
char letter;
int aa;
int a;
for (a = 0; a < 8; a++ )
{letter = above.charAt(a);
aa=8*a;
drawChar(aa, height, (letter), 0, false);
}
for (a = 0; a < 8; a++ )
{letter = under.charAt(a);
aa=8*a;
drawChar(aa, 8, (letter), 0, false);
}
}

//XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
void writescreenbig(String above, int height)
{
char letter;
int aa;
int a;
for (a = 0; a < 8; a++ )
{letter = above.charAt(a);
aa=8*a;
drawChar(aa, height, (letter), 2, false);
}
}
//XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
void setup() {
if (Select)switches() ; // if key select is pressed it is detected in void wait and returned to loop; from there to void switches…
pinMode(SelectPIN, INPUT); // N.O. push button switch
pinMode(UpPIN, INPUT); // N.O. push button switch
pinMode(DownPIN, INPUT); // N.O. push button switch

digitalWrite(SelectPIN, HIGH); // pull-ups on
digitalWrite(UpPIN, HIGH);// pull-ups on
digitalWrite(DownPIN, HIGH); // pull-ups on

Serial.begin(9600);
// InitDHT();//Does what’s necessary to prepare for reading DHT
dht.begin();
//delay(1300); // needed for DHT11

#ifdef AVR
Wire.begin();
#else
Wire1.begin(); // Shield I2C pins connect to alt I2C bus on Arduino Due
#endif
rtc.begin();

if (! rtc.isrunning()) {
//Serial.println(“RTC is NOT running!”);
// following line sets the RTC to the date & time this sketch was compiled
rtc.adjust(DateTime(__DATE__, __TIME__));
}
// rtc.adjust(DateTime(__DATE__, __TIME__)); // Q&D way to set the time anyway but take it off the program afterwards!

for ( int ptr = 0; ptr < length; ptr++ ) {
x[ptr] = 16 ; //numberOfHorizontal8bitsDisplays * 8 / 2
y[ptr] = 16 ; //numberOfVertical8bitsDisplays * 8 / 2
}
nextPtr = 0;
// Serial.println(“Humidity and temperature\n\n”);

bmp085Calibration();

// Set up Timer2 as the scanning interrupt timer
cli(); // clear interrupts
TCCR2A = 0; TCCR2B = 0; TCNT2 = 0;
TCCR2B |= (1 << CS12) | (1 << CS10); // Set 1024 prescaler
// 160Hz scan rate = 10 frames/second (16 pairs of rows)
OCR2A = 97; // 97 = (16,000,000 / (1024*160)) – 1
TCCR2A |= (1 << WGM21); TIMSK2 |= (1 << OCIE2A);

pinMode(latchPin, OUTPUT); pinMode(clockPin, OUTPUT);
pinMode(data_R1, OUTPUT); pinMode(data_R2, OUTPUT);

pinMode(en_74138, OUTPUT);
pinMode(la_74138, OUTPUT); pinMode(lb_74138, OUTPUT);
pinMode(lc_74138, OUTPUT); pinMode(ld_74138, OUTPUT);

digitalWrite(en_74138, LOW);
digitalWrite(data_R1, HIGH); digitalWrite(data_R2, HIGH);
counter = millis();
sei(); //allow interrupts

//READ the memory of the AT24C32 (and write te settings he
low=0x00;
// Serial.println();
// Serial.print(“DATA SETUP VOID READ: “);
for (int i=0;i<=20;i++)
{
Wire.beginTransmission(0x50);
Wire.write(high);
Wire.write(low);
Wire.endTransmission();
Wire.requestFrom(0x50 ,1);
int data=Wire.read();//char or int, can both be done?
delay(5);

// Serial.print (data)-48;
// Serial.print(“,”);
// Serial.println(low);
// delay(10);
if (low==1) wait=int(data)-48+8;
if (low==2) typeofclock=int(data)-48;
if (low==3) fun=int(data)-48;
if (low==4) minormax=int(data)-48;

low++;
}

// the values of the settings will be written in AT24C32 register and will be read in Setup void, every time the device (re)starts
// the values are:
// wait, integer between 0 and 9==> 8 to 18 position low 1
// typeofclock, small clock or big clock 0 or 1 position low 2
// fun, with fun or just readouts 0 or 1 position low 3
// minormax, minimum screen or all of it 0 or 1 position low 4
// Serial.println();
// Serial.print(” Transferred to program: wait= “);
// Serial.print(wait);
// Serial.print(“, typeofclock= “);
// Serial.print(typeofclock);
// Serial.print(“, fun= “);
// Serial.print(fun);
// Serial.print(“, minormax= “);
// Serial.print(minormax);

// Serial.println();

}

// Note that there’s no need to do anything with the screen in the main loop.
// Whatever’s in “buffer” is constantly scanned out.

//======================================================================================================================================================
void loop() {
// bmp085Calibration();
//delay(2000);
if (Select)switches() ; // if key select is pressed it is detected in void wait and returned to loop; from there to void switches…

// Reading temperature or humidity takes about 250 milliseconds!
// Sensor readings may also be up to 2 seconds ‘old’ (its a very slow sensor)
//float h = dht.readHumidity();
// Read temperature as Celsius
// float t = dht.readTemperature();
// Read temperature as Fahrenheit
// float f = dht.readTemperature(true);

// Check if any reads failed and exit early (to try again).
// if (isnan(h) || isnan(t) || isnan(f)) {
// Serial.println(“Failed to read from DHT sensor!”);
// return;
// }

// Compute heat index
// Must send in temp in Fahrenheit!
// float hi = dht.computeHeatIndex(f, h);
// float temperature = bmp085GetTemperature(bmp085ReadUT()); //MUST be called first
// float pressure = bmp085GetPressure(bmp085ReadUP());
// float atm = pressure / 101325; // “standard atmosphere”
// float altitude = calcAltitude(pressure); //Uncompensated caculation – in Meters

// Serial.print(“Humidity: “);
// Serial.print(h);
// Serial.print(” %\t”);
// Serial.print(“Temperature: “);
// Serial.print(t);
// Serial.print(” *C “);
// Serial.print(f);
// Serial.print(” *F\t”);
// Serial.print(“Heat index: “);
// Serial.print(hi);
// Serial.println(” *F”);

// Serial.println();//line break
// Serial.print(“Temperature: “);
// Serial.print(temperature, 2); //display 2 decimal places
// Serial.println(“deg C”);

// Serial.print(“Pressure: “);
// Serial.print(pressure, 0); //whole number only.
// Serial.println(” Pa (100 Pa = 1 millibar)”);

// Serial.print(“Standard Atmosphere: “);
// Serial.println(atm, 4); //display 4 decimal places

// Serial.print(“Altitude: “);
// Serial.print(altitude, 2); //display 2 decimal places
// Serial.println(” M”);

// Serial.println();//line break
// clearscreen();

// if (resetcounter == 4)resetFunc(); //call reset
// resetcounter=resetcounter+1;

clearscreen();
rollingtimeEN();
if (Select)switches() ; // if key select is pressed it is detected in void wait and returned to loop; from there to void switches…
rollingdateEN();
if (Select)switches() ; // if key select is pressed it is detected in void wait and returned to loop; from there to void switches…
runscreen(” “); //shiftout the display with blanks
clearscreen();
JMWG();

clearscreen();

if (typeofclock==0) return;
if (Select)switches() ; // if key select is pressed it is detected in void wait and returned to loop; from there to void switches…
if (typeofclock==0) return;
// clearscreen();
// writescreensmall (” Plaats “, ” je “,0);
// wacht(wait*140);
// if (Select)switches() ; // if key select is pressed it is detected in void wait and returned to loop; from there to void switches…
// writescreenbig (” Eigen “, 0);
// wacht(wait*140);
// if (Select)switches() ; // if key select is pressed it is detected in void wait and returned to loop; from there to void switches…
// writescreensmall (” tekst “, ” hier! “,0);
// wacht(wait*140);
// if (Select)switches() ; // if key select is pressed it is detected in void wait and returned to loop; from there to void switches…
clearscreen();
rollinghumidEN();
if (Select)switches() ; // if key select is pressed it is detected in void wait and returned to loop; from there to void switches…
rollingTempENF();
if (Select)switches() ; // if key select is pressed it is detected in void wait and returned to loop; from there to void switches…
rollingTempENC();
if (Select)switches() ; // if key select is pressed it is detected in void wait and returned to loop; from there to void switches…
rollingPressureEN();
if (Select)switches() ; // if key select is pressed it is detected in void wait and returned to loop; from there to void switches…
rollingHeightEN();
if (Select)switches() ; // if key select is pressed it is detected in void wait and returned to loop; from there to void switches…

clearscreen();
bigclock();
if (Select)switches() ; // if key select is pressed it is detected in void wait and returned to loop; from there to void switches…
clearscreen();
JMWG();
if (Select)switches() ; // if key select is pressed it is detected in void wait and returned to loop; from there to void switches…
clearscreen();
rollingtimeEN();
runscreen(” “); //shiftout the display with blanks
if (Select)switches() ; // if key select is pressed it is detected in void wait and returned to loop; from there to void switches…
clearscreen();
snake();
if (Select)switches() ; // if key select is pressed it is detected in void wait and returned to loop; from there to void switches…
clearscreen();
rollupclock();
if (Select)switches() ; // if key select is pressed it is detected in void wait and returned to loop; from there to void switches…
clearscreen();
JMWG();
if (Select)switches() ; // if key select is pressed it is detected in void wait and returned to loop; from there to void switches…

// wait = wait + inc;
// if ( wait < 8 ) inc = 1; //random(15,2);
// if ( wait > 15 ) inc = -1; //-random(15,2);
// wait=random (18,8);

};

//xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
void clearscreen()

// setPixel(x,y,colour) where if colour=0 pixel=off, if colour=1 pixel=on
{
int yy = 0;
int xx = 0;
for (yy = 0; yy <= 16; yy++)
{
for (xx = 0; xx <= 64; xx++)
{
setPixel(xx, yy, (0));
}
}
}

//======================================================================================================================================================
void rollingtimeEN()
{
DateTime now = rtc.now(); // Get data from the DS1307
int counthour;

if ( (int (now.hour())) > 11) {counthour = (int(now.hour())-12);}
else int counthour = int(now.hour());

String Shour = (hourNameEN[counthour]);
String Shour1 = (hourNameEN[(counthour+1)]);
int Sminutesingle = (now.minute());

String ENtijd = “Time ERROR”;

if ((Sminutesingle)==0) ENtijd = “exactly “+ Shour+ ” o’clock”;
else if ((Sminutesingle)==1) ENtijd = “1 minute past “+ Shour;
else if ((Sminutesingle)==15) ENtijd = “a quarter past “+ Shour;
// else if ((Sminutesingle)==29) ENtijd = “1 to half “+ Shour1;
else if ((Sminutesingle)==30) ENtijd = “half past “+ Shour;
// else if ((Sminutesingle)==31) ENtijd = “1 past half “+ Shour1;
else if ((Sminutesingle)==45) ENtijd = “a quarter to “+ Shour1;
else if ((Sminutesingle)==59) ENtijd = “1 minute to “+ Shour1;// + ” o’clock”;
else if (Sminutesingle > 1 && Sminutesingle < 29){ ENtijd = String(Sminutesingle)+ ” minutes past “+ Shour;}
else if (Sminutesingle > 31 && Sminutesingle < 59){ ENtijd = String(60-Sminutesingle)+ ” minutes to ” + Shour1;}
else if ((Sminutesingle)==60) ENtijd = “precisely “+ Shour1+ ” o’clock”;
else ENtijd =”Time ERROR”;

//define the timestring to be rolled here:

String Stotal = ” It is ” + ENtijd;

runscreen(Stotal);
}

//======================================================================================================================================================
void rollingdateEN()
{
DateTime now = rtc.now(); // Get data from the DS1307
String Sday = (dayNameEN[int(now.dayOfWeek())]);
String Sdate = String(now.day());
String Smonth = (monthNameEN[int(now.month())]);
String Syear = String(now.year()).substring(0,4);
String Stotal = “, ” + Sday + ‘ ‘ + Smonth + ‘ ‘ + Sdate + “, ” + Syear; //define the datestring to be rolled here
runscreen(Stotal);
clearscreen;
}

//start VOID =====================================================================================
void snake()
{
int matrixwidth = 64;
int matrixheight = 16;

for (int a = 0; a < (1000); a++) {
// Shift pointer to the next segment
ptr = nextPtr;
nextPtr = next(ptr);

setPixel(x[ptr], y[ptr], 1); // Draw the head of the snake

wacht(wait * 1);

if ( ! occupied(nextPtr) ) {
setPixel(x[nextPtr], y[nextPtr], 0); // Remove the tail of the snake

}

for ( int attempt = 0; attempt < 20; attempt++ ) {

// Jump at random one step up, down, left, or right
switch ( random(4) ) {
case 0: x[nextPtr] = constrain(x[ptr] + 1, 0, matrixwidth – 1); y[nextPtr] = y[ptr]; break;
case 1: x[nextPtr] = constrain(x[ptr] – 1, 0, matrixwidth – 1); y[nextPtr] = y[ptr]; break;
case 2: y[nextPtr] = constrain(y[ptr] + 1, 0, matrixheight – 1); x[nextPtr] = x[ptr]; break;
case 3: y[nextPtr] = constrain(y[ptr] – 1, 0, matrixheight – 1); x[nextPtr] = x[ptr]; break;
}

if ( ! occupied(nextPtr) ) {
break; // The spot is empty, break out the for loop
}
}
}
}

boolean occupied(int ptrA) {
for ( int ptrB = 0 ; ptrB < length; ptrB++ ) {
if ( ptrA != ptrB ) {
if ( equal(ptrA, ptrB) ) {
return true;
}
}
}

return false;
}

int next(int ptr) {
return (ptr + 1) % length;
}

boolean equal(int ptrA, int ptrB) {
return x[ptrA] == x[ptrB] && y[ptrA] == y[ptrB];
// wait=waittemp;
clearscreen();
}

//start VOID =====================================================================================
void bigclock()
{
clearscreen;
DateTime now = rtc.now(); // Date and time functions using a DS1307 RTC connected via I2C and Wire lib
// String Syear = String(now.year()).substring(2,4);

for (int aa = 0; aa <= 50; aa++)
{
DateTime now = rtc.now();
// writescreenbig ((String ((now.hour()/10) %10))+(String (now.hour()%10))+’:’+String((now.minute()/10) %10) + String(now.minute()%10)+’:’+ (String((now.second()/10)%10))+ String(now.second()%10),int((aa-25)/8));
writescreenbig ((String ((now.hour()/10) %10))+(String (now.hour()%10))+’:’+String((now.minute()/10) %10) + String(now.minute()%10)+’:’+ (String((now.second()/10)%10))+ String(now.second()%10),0);
wacht (wait*7);
writescreenbig ((String ((now.hour()/10) %10))+(String (now.hour()%10))+’ ‘+String((now.minute()/10) %10) + String(now.minute()%10)+’ ‘+ (String((now.second()/10)%10))+ String(now.second()%10),0);
// writescreenbig (String(now.hour()).substring(0,2)+’ ‘+ String(now.minute()).substring(0,2)+’ ‘+ String(now.second()).substring(0,2),int((aa-25)/8));
wacht (wait*7);
}
//clearscreen;
for (int aa = 0; aa <= 15; aa++)
{
DateTime now = rtc.now();
writescreenbig ((String ((now.day()/10) %10))+(String (now.day()%10))+’/’+String((now.month()/10) %10) + String(now.month()%10)+’/’+ String(now.year()).substring(2,4),0);
wacht (wait*5);
drawChar(16, -1, ‘-‘ , 2, false);
drawChar(40, -1, ‘-‘ , 2, false);
wacht (wait*5);
drawChar(16, -1, (92) , 2, false);
drawChar(40, -1, (92) , 2, false);
wacht (wait*5);
drawChar(16, -1, (124) , 2, false);
drawChar(40, -1, (124) , 2, false);
wacht (wait*5);
}
clearscreen;
}
//start VOID =====================================================================================
void rollupclock()
{
clearscreen();
DateTime now = rtc.now(); // Date and time functions using a DS1307 RTC connected via I2C and Wire lib

for (int aa = 17; aa >= 0; aa–)
{
DateTime now = rtc.now();
clearscreen();
writescreenbig ((String ((now.hour()/10) %10))+(String (now.hour()%10))+’:’+String((now.minute()/10) %10) + String(now.minute()%10)+’:’+ (String((now.second()/10)%10))+ String(now.second()%10),aa);
wacht (wait*2);
}
wacht(wait*100);
//for (int aa = 0; aa <= 17; aa++) //down and away
for (int aa = 0; aa >= -17; aa–) //up and away
{
clearscreen();
writescreenbig ((String ((now.hour()/10) %10))+(String (now.hour()%10))+’:’+String((now.minute()/10) %10) + String(now.minute()%10)+’:’+ (String((now.second()/10)%10))+ String(now.second()%10),aa);
wacht (wait*2);
}
clearscreen;
wacht(wait*30);
}
//start VOID =====================================================================================

void JMWG(){

int matrixwidth = 64;
int matrixheight = 16;

for (int a = 0; a < 1; a++ ) {
drawChar(16, 0, ‘J’, 2, false);
drawChar(24, 0, ‘M’, 2, false);
drawChar(32, 0, ‘W’, 2, false);
drawChar(40, 0, ‘G’, 2, false);

for ( int x = 0; x < matrixwidth – 1; x++ ) {
drawLine(x, 0, matrixwidth – 1 – x, matrixheight – 1, 1);
wacht(wait);
drawLine(x, 0, matrixwidth – 1 – x, matrixheight – 1, 0);
}

for ( int y = 0; y < matrixheight – 1; y++ ) {
drawLine(matrixwidth – 1, y, 0, matrixheight – 1 – y, 1);
wacht(wait);
drawLine(matrixwidth – 1, y, 0, matrixheight – 1 – y, 0);
}
}
}

//======================================================================================================================================================
void rollinghumidEN()
{
int Stemp = dht.readHumidity();// Get data from the temp and humid sensor
String Stotal=” The relative humidity is “+String(Stemp)+” percent,”; //define the humid string to be rolled
runscreen(Stotal);
}

//======================================================================================================================================================
void rollingTempENF()
{
float temperature = 32+ (1.8*(bmp085GetTemperature(bmp085ReadUT()))); // calculate to Fahrenheit= ((Celsius x 1.8) + 32)

String Stotal= ” the temperature is ” + String(temperature,1)+ ” degrees Fahrenheit,” ; //define the string to be rolled
runscreen (Stotal);
}

//======================================================================================================================================================
void rollingTempENC()
{
float temperature = bmp085GetTemperature(bmp085ReadUT()); // Celsius

String Stotal= ” (” + String(temperature,1)+ ” degrees Celsius),” ; //define the string to be rolled
runscreen (Stotal);
}

//======================================================================================================================================================
void rollingPressureEN()
{
float pressure = bmp085GetPressure(bmp085ReadUP()); // 100 pascal = 1 millibar
float pressure2 = float (pressure/100);
String Stotal= ” the airpressure is ” + String(pressure2) + ” hPa,”; //define the string to be rolled
runscreen (Stotal);
}

//======================================================================================================================================================
void rollingHeightEN()
{
float pressure = (bmp085GetPressure(bmp085ReadUP())/100); // 100 pascal = 1 millibar
int altitude = calcAltitude(pressure*100); //Uncompensated calculation – in Meters
String Stotal= ” the fictive height is ” + String (altitude) + ” meters “; //define the string to be rolled
runscreen (Stotal);
}

//======================================================================================================================================================
// Stores all of the bmp085’s calibration values into global variables
// Calibration values are required to calculate temp and pressure
// This function should be called at the beginning of the program
void bmp085Calibration()
{
ac1 = bmp085ReadInt(0xAA);
ac2 = bmp085ReadInt(0xAC);
ac3 = bmp085ReadInt(0xAE);
ac4 = bmp085ReadInt(0xB0);
ac5 = bmp085ReadInt(0xB2);
ac6 = bmp085ReadInt(0xB4);
b1 = bmp085ReadInt(0xB6);
b2 = bmp085ReadInt(0xB8);
mb = bmp085ReadInt(0xBA);
mc = bmp085ReadInt(0xBC);
md = bmp085ReadInt(0xBE);
}

// Calculate temperature in deg C
float bmp085GetTemperature(unsigned int ut){
long x1, x2;

x1 = (((long)ut – (long)ac6)*(long)ac5) >> 15;
x2 = ((long)mc << 11)/(x1 + md);
b5 = x1 + x2;

float temp = ((b5 + 8)>>4);
temp = temp /10;

return temp;
}

// Calculate pressure given up
// calibration values must be known
// b5 is also required so bmp085GetTemperature(…) must be called first.
// Value returned will be pressure in units of Pa.
long bmp085GetPressure(unsigned long up){
long x1, x2, x3, b3, b6, p;
unsigned long b4, b7;

b6 = b5 – 4000;
// Calculate B3
x1 = (b2 * (b6 * b6)>>12)>>11;
x2 = (ac2 * b6)>>11;
x3 = x1 + x2;
b3 = (((((long)ac1)*4 + x3)<<OSS) + 2)>>2;

// Calculate B4
x1 = (ac3 * b6)>>13;
x2 = (b1 * ((b6 * b6)>>12))>>16;
x3 = ((x1 + x2) + 2)>>2;
b4 = (ac4 * (unsigned long)(x3 + 32768))>>15;

b7 = ((unsigned long)(up – b3) * (50000>>OSS));
if (b7 < 0x80000000)
p = (b7<<1)/b4;
else
p = (b7/b4)<<1;

x1 = (p>>8) * (p>>8);
x1 = (x1 * 3038)>>16;
x2 = (-7357 * p)>>16;
p += (x1 + x2 + 3791)>>4;

long temp = p;
return temp;
}

// Read 1 byte from the BMP085 at ‘address’
char bmp085Read(unsigned char address)
{
unsigned char data;

Wire.beginTransmission(BMP085_ADDRESS);
Wire.write(address);
Wire.endTransmission();

Wire.requestFrom(BMP085_ADDRESS, 1);
while(!Wire.available())
;

return Wire.read();
}

// Read 2 bytes from the BMP085
// First byte will be from ‘address’
// Second byte will be from ‘address’+1
int bmp085ReadInt(unsigned char address)
{
unsigned char msb, lsb;

Wire.beginTransmission(BMP085_ADDRESS);
Wire.write(address);
Wire.endTransmission();

Wire.requestFrom(BMP085_ADDRESS, 2);
while(Wire.available()<2)
;
msb = Wire.read();
lsb = Wire.read();

return (int) msb<<8 | lsb;
}

// Read the uncompensated temperature value
unsigned int bmp085ReadUT(){
unsigned int ut;

// Write 0x2E into Register 0xF4
// This requests a temperature reading
Wire.beginTransmission(BMP085_ADDRESS);
Wire.write(0xF4);
Wire.write(0x2E);
Wire.endTransmission();

// Wait at least 4.5ms
delay(5);

// Read two bytes from registers 0xF6 and 0xF7
ut = bmp085ReadInt(0xF6);
return ut;
}

// Read the uncompensated pressure value
unsigned long bmp085ReadUP(){

unsigned char msb, lsb, xlsb;
unsigned long up = 0;

// Write 0x34+(OSS<<6) into register 0xF4
// Request a pressure reading w/ oversampling setting
Wire.beginTransmission(BMP085_ADDRESS);
Wire.write(0xF4);
Wire.write(0x34 + (OSS<<6));
Wire.endTransmission();

// Wait for conversion, delay time dependent on OSS
delay(2 + (3<<OSS));

// Read register 0xF6 (MSB), 0xF7 (LSB), and 0xF8 (XLSB)
msb = bmp085Read(0xF6);
lsb = bmp085Read(0xF7);
xlsb = bmp085Read(0xF8);

up = (((unsigned long) msb << 16) | ((unsigned long) lsb << 8) | (unsigned long) xlsb) >> (8-OSS);

return up;
}
// xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
void writeRegister(int deviceAddress, byte address, byte val)
{
Wire.beginTransmission(deviceAddress); // start transmission to device
Wire.write(address); // send register address
Wire.write(val); // send value to write
Wire.endTransmission(); // end transmission
}

int readRegister(int deviceAddress, byte address){

int v;
Wire.beginTransmission(deviceAddress);
Wire.write(address); // register to read
Wire.endTransmission();

Wire.requestFrom(deviceAddress, 1); // read a byte

while(!Wire.available()) {
// waiting
}

v = Wire.read();
return v;
}

float calcAltitude(float pressure){

float A = pressure/101325;
float B = 1/5.25588;
float C = pow(A,B);
C = 1 – C;
C = C /0.0000225577;

return C;
}

//XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
void switches()
/* the intent here is to use a couple of hardware switches to set all parameters of the system, so you don’t need to update it with the PC.
The systems becomes independent in this way and possibly it can be a sellable item then.

There will be 3 switches: Select , Up and Down. If there is enough room, I will connect them all three to available inputs:
A1= Select,
D9= Up and
D7= Down

The structure is for Select to halt the running programs through the interrupt that is built in the wait void!
Once you are in the switches void the structure is to g through setup with Up and Down, choose the appropriate setting ans Select is, after which you
can again select a new option if available and so on.

I will try to make a function that allows you to press Up and Down at the same time to return immediately or to use is as a reset possibility…

Up and down could also be used as up/down time/date/others by pressing where long press fastens the speed of change…
*/

{

//main menu select main functions 1 clock set,2 date set,3 language,4 speed,5 appearance: short/long/playfull,6 priority : more time/ more weather/ more fun, 7 update
// this variable used to store these switches is integer: MainMenu (1-7)
// The choices will be stored in the available flash memory of the DS 1307 so that the system will always restart with the active last settings
// Only the first 8 bytes (0x00 – 0x07) are used by the clock itself while the other 56 bytes can be used as scratchpad RAM, BUT.. on this small board there
// is also 32K of memory available in a small AT24C32 separately addressable Eprom memory!

Select=false; // reset state of Reset button to start

// this is the 1st loop to input and setup
clearscreen();

writescreensmall(” press a”, ” button “, 0);

// delay(5000);

//wait for press on Up, Down or Select
while(1)
{
int valU = digitalRead(UpPIN); // read the input pin
if (valU==LOW) {Up=true; break;} // // if key Up is pressed set a binary state high here
int valD = digitalRead(DownPIN); // read the input pin
if (valD==LOW) {Down=true; break;} // if key Down is pressed set a binary state high here
// int valS = digitalRead(SelectPIN); // read the input pin
// if (valS==LOW) {Select=true; break;} // if key Select is pressed set a binary state high here
}
clearscreen();
//xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx

if (Up==true){
Up=false;
// this is the 2nd loop to input and setup
clearscreen();
writescreensmall(” time “, “settings”,0);
delay(2000);

//wait for press on Up or Down
while(1)
{
int valU = digitalRead(UpPIN); // read the input pin
if (valU==LOW) {Up=true; break;} // // if key Up is pressed set a binary state high here
int valD = digitalRead(DownPIN); // read the input pin
if (valD==LOW) {Down=true; break;} // if key Up is pressed set a binary state high here
int valS = digitalRead(SelectPIN); // read the input pin
if (valS==LOW) {Select=true; break;} // if key Select is pressed set a binary state high here
}
clearscreen();
}

//xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx

if (Down==true){
Down=false;
// this is the 2nd loop to input and setup
clearscreen();
writescreensmall(” date “, “settings”,0);

delay(2000);

//wait for press on Up or Down
while(1)
{
int valU = digitalRead(UpPIN); // read the input pin
if (valU==LOW) {Up=true; break;} // // if key Up is pressed set a binary state high here
int valD = digitalRead(DownPIN); // read the input pin
if (valD==LOW) {Down=true; break;} // if key Up is pressed set a binary state high here
int valS = digitalRead(SelectPIN); // read the input pin
if (valS==LOW) {Select=true; break;} // if key Select is pressed set a binary state high here
}
clearscreen();
}

//xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
if (Select=true) {Select=false; Up=false; Down=false; return;}
if (Up=true) {Up=false; switches();}
if (Down=true) {Down=false; switches();}
//else Select=true, this must be better structured!
//else break;

//xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
// write the dataword in memory that will be used after this as settings for all variables, and when restarted read from mem for the same purpose…
// use the mem from the DS1307, extra chip on it with 32Kbit= 4kByte
low=0x00;
byte dataword[]={“05100000000testJMWG”};
//pos 1 (not 0) plus 48 is wait, etcetera…. IT IS an array of chars!
// can be written per character, is simpler than first build an array…

for (int i=0;i<=20;i++)
{
Wire.beginTransmission(0x50);
Wire.write(high);
Wire.write(low);
Wire.write(dataword[i]);
Wire.endTransmission();
delay(5);
low++;
}

//READ the memory of the AT24C32 (just used for debugging)
low=0x00;
// Serial.println();
for (int i=0;i<=20;i++)
{
Wire.beginTransmission(0x50);
Wire.write(high);
Wire.write(low);
Wire.endTransmission();
Wire.requestFrom(0x50 ,1);
char data=Wire.read();
delay(5);
// Serial.print(“DATA “);
// Serial.print(data);
// Serial.print(” LO ADD “);
// Serial.println(low);
// delay(10);
low++;
}

// Serial.println();
// Serial.print(“wait= “);
// Serial.print(wait);

// the values of the settings will be written in AT24C32 register and will be read in Setup void, every time the device (re)starts
// the values are minus 48 due to the caharcter set in memory, ascii table starts at 0 as int48!
// wait, integer between 0 and 9==>8 to 18 (+8) position low 1
// typeofclock, small clock or big clock 0 or 1 position low 2
// fun, with fun or just readouts 0 or 1 position low 3
// minormax, minimum screen or all of it 0 or 1 position low 4

Select=false; // reset state of 3 buttons to start
Up=false; // reset state of 3 buttons to start
Down=false; // reset state of 3 buttons to start

}

Front Disc brakes for your Traction Avant 11

GO TO MY DISC BRAKE CONVERSION HERE

After converting my Traction Avant to 4-speed, I noticed that the car’s braking power is only just sufficient to drive safely in today’s traffic. 

Unless you firmly press the brake pedal; then something does happen!

Especially with several passengers in the car the braking power seems to be on the small side, probably because we are used to power brakes in modern(er) cars.

Kicking harder on the brake pedal also helps, and the well adjusted new brake linings on the brake drums make sure that the car will block on all wheels in case of a panic stop.

Nevertheless, I started looking for possibilities to mount disc brakes on the front wheels.

In France, until 2004, there was a manufacturer that sold kits with discs, caliper adapters and calipers. 

Without a brake booster but that is certainly not a big problem, a 7 inch brake assist booster (aftermarket add-on)  fits from any ’60-’65 kit . So this might be the next project:

Did call and email but never got in touch….

Still going to make it myself! 

Or just place a brake booster in combination with a suitable master cylinder, then I can use the existing drum brakes and make 2 separate circuits.

 

 

NEW!!!  2020: Now available in France:

Add Front Disc Brakes to Your Traction Avant

 

Add Front Disc Brakes to Your Traction Avant

Pierre Duperray in France will soon be offering a front disc brake conversion for the Traction Avant.

You may remember him as we have covered in the past his creating 4 speed gearboxes for both 4 cyl and 6 cyl Tractions.

He is currently preparing to fit disc brakes for on his Traction 11BL.

Pierre says that the assembly is very easy to install. And the cost?

  • Brake calipers and pads = 500€ (2 sets) — manufactured by Wilwood.
  • 2 Discs = 150€ (Audi)
  • Flexible Brake Hoses = 80€
  • Machining = 300€ (part with first laser cut)

Total: about 1,000€

Pierre thinks that this solution is also possible for the 15-6, though it will be necessary to modify the hub.

And the pictures of Pierre’s conversion to disc brakes:

Another anonomous conversion off the onternet:

What do you need to convert your front brake system from drums to disc brakes?  That depends a bit on:

Do you want to leave the original operation with the single master cylinder or do you want to build something else in? 

To make it work properly you will probably need to add a brake booster.  Or maybe not if you use the 4-piston brake calipers. And- an add-on brake assist will be very visible under the hood ….  Obviously it is not possible to mount a normal type of brake booster that mounts between the pedal and the master cylinder in a Traction Avant.

Should I choose to convert to disc brakes, I would choose to mount a new master cylinder with cross switched  similtauous  brake circuits, for safety.  And possobly a brake booster, if needed. 

The pistons of the disc brakes have to give more pressure to brake at the front because they also brake a smaller area than with the drum brakes and at the front you need more braking power than at the rear on the drum brakes.

I found the following parts on the internet, noting that the best solution seems to be a 300mm disc, with a quad-piston caliper and a caliper bracket with a difference of about 3 inches, namely towards the side of the bike.

Provided you mount it correctly, of course. 

I deliberately don’t choose a caliper with a brake saddle and piston on 1 side.  I try to stay as close as possible to the positively proven after market kit as shown in the photos at the top of this article.

 

Soldering aluminum

With an ordinary soldering torch you can solder aluminum with special rods, at a much lower temperature than when you can weld aluminum.  If you clean the materials with a stainless steel brush and preheat the materials well on, for example, a 4-burner stove, you can solder aluminum with an ordinary soldering torch (for tin).  I managed it and it is absolutely hard and tight!

Rebuild the Traction Avant from 6V to 12Volts electric system

Sometime around 2006/2007 I initially fitted the Traction Avant with a CTA 6 volt alternator.

Above you see the CTA kit that I originally used to convert the 6 Volt system from DC to AC. You can also see the alternator from CTA installed at the time, the bracket from CTA never really worked well and seemed to be on the weak side.

Shortly after that I converted the car to 12 Volts.

I then replaced the regulator from the 6Volt type to a 12 Volt separate regulator.

That never really worked well. The charging current seemed reasonable but the voltage never rose above 12.4 Volts.

While a full battery when charged is at about 13.4 Volts.

After a lot of research and searching, I put a fixed regulator on the alternator, but that didn’t help either.

Now it seems that the field winding just can’t handle more because this alternator is wound for 6 Volts.

Seems strange to me, if you turn faster you get more voltage according to the Faraday book, but there also seems to be a saturation of the ironwork.

Later again, I converted the Traction to a 4-speed, with an ID19P engine and corresponding drive pulley for the water pump and alternator.

So in the end I just bought a new 12 (14) Volt alternator from ISKRA, actually a Mahle one.

This alternator delivers 14 Volt max and 33 Ampere max.

It still needed some modifications, of course a new bracket…

And the pulley had to be moved a little on the shaft.

I moved the big ring on the outside to the inside, behind the pulley and with that the offset was sufficient.

I found the bracket of the CTA set-up too weak, I had already replaced it for a sturdier home-made type.

The ISKRA alternator fits exactly in this bracket and further connection is no problem at all.

I have already converted my pulleys to thin belt dimensions of 10 mm because I was stuck to the pulley of the ID19P, which I wanted to keep because it is a bit larger than that of the original Traction Avant. This makes the water pump run just 5% faster and that seemed a good idea in connection with possible extra heat development from the ID19P engine, it was of course also the original pulley from that type of engine and it all just fitted with the engine mounting in the Traction Avant…

It remains to be seen, because the water pump of the TA is slightly different than that of the iD19P. It all works fine though.

The new alternator also works perfectly and charges the battery at 13.4 Volts.

In the end I did some calculations on the RPM’s you need to get a good charge.

From the graphs of this ISKRA alternator you can see that it only does something above 1200 RPM up to 7500 RPM.

The ID engine makes 650 RMM at idle up to max 3800 RPM.

The camshaft turns half the speed of the crankshaft so 325-1900 RPM.

The camshaft pulley of the ID19P is 21cm in diameter and that of the Dynamo is 7cm in diameter, this gives an acceleration of exactly 3x.

The shaft rotation speed of the dynamo is therefore between 975 and 4700 RPM. That’s too little to charge anything at idle.

The pulley of an old DS20 alternator was turned from double pulley to single pulley by me earlier and was mounted on the CTA 6V alternator, see the photo higher in this article. This one has a diameter of 6cm.  The acceleration from crankshaft pulley to dynamo is then 21/6=3.5x.

With this smaller dynamo pulley, the shaft rotation speed of the dynamo becomes 3.5 x(325-1900) RPM, so 1150-5650 RPM.  That’s just enough to charge something at idle.

See below an action picture of the moving fan and pulley c.q. belt….

Switched DC-DC proportional inverters have been made and installed for all motors such as windshield wiper and heater.  The bulbs have all been replaced for 12 Volt types and the signal driver has also been replaced.  The fuel gauge ballast resistor has been modified, the air horn pump, and the starter motor have all been replaced for a 12 Volt type.  Control lights, dash lights and so on have all been replaced as well. And… just a bit more about how it was with the DC alternator:

Ricoh Company Ltd.

Driving the DS convertible September, 2018

Yesterday , 27th of September 2018, it was again a beautiful day so I took the DS out for a drive through the Dutch countryside.  Hood down, windows down and a temperature of around 20 degrees Centigrade. Not too bad alltogether, I just lit a cigar, switched on the LPG and drove away.  The car moves elegantly, the 5th gear also works very well and everything is working fine. Tested the airconditioning and this also worked fine.  I also took a couple of pictures:  Maybe I will not sell the car after all……

I still need to have the carpeting installed and have the seats upholstered with black leather…  And have the roof finalized by a specialist, will get to all of this later!

Traction Avant repair 3-speed gearbox with 2 broken teeth on 2nd gear

After the purchase, the TA’s gearbox turned out to be defective. 2  teeth were missing from the 2nd gear.  Later I (fortunately) discovered both teeth in the gearbox’s oil sump.

This second gear is the most vulnerable gear, especially because people often try to drag a TA in 2nd gear. 

Or they try to get the engine loose by force dragging it in 2nd gear.

Fortunately I was able to buy a NOS gear via the TA club warehouse and after an evening of reading the garage manual I dismantled and reassembled it. 

Easy to do most of this myself. With help from my brother in his garage, to set the Timken bearings at the correct tension and adjust the play of the differential.

Also mounted new oil seals.

 

 

DOT3 OR DOT4 BRAKE FLUID

Our MOT garage, not a Mazda dealer I should mention here, exchanged the brake fluid early 2018 from the original DOT3 to DOT4, without asking us.

Almost instantly we had problems. The front disc brakes did not return after braking.

The brake pads kept in place against the discs and when driving corners you heard the pads humming.

This is caused by the additives in the Dot4 brake fluid. This fluid is much more aggressive than DOT3 fluid. No problem for modern cars. But our 2004 Mazda could not cope with DOT4.  The rubbers swoll and got thicker.  Clearly to be seen at the filler cap. Hardly impossible after a month of DOT4 to get the rubber back in.

So, although trusted websites and garages, so_alled experts advice to upgrade to DOT4, Never Ever do this. There is a reason for the message ONLY DOT3.

I have exchanged the fluid with DOT3 now, and I hope that this solves our problems. Fingers crossed..  Otherwise a complete revision of brakes and clutch is required…  4 brake calipers, 1 master brake cylinder, 1 master clutch and the clutch servo…  Not the costs, but a lot of work. Although, after this any DOT will be possible.. Hmmm. Maybe not that bad a thought after all.

If you really need to go from DOT3 to DOT4 without changing cups and rubbers, do the simple test as described below:

Take the rubber from the filler cap out, put it in a closed jar filled with fresh DOT4 for a week and fit it back in.

If it fits perfectly, go ahead with DOT4.

And the garage? They are the expert, no way they will repair our car… In their opinion the car is too old anyway and it should be EOL.

Inserted article:

3 Points To Take Note When Comparing Between DOT 3 Vs DOT 4 Brake Fluid

The brake fluid is the lifeblood of the braking system. It keeps the braking components lubricated so that they respond promptly when you press the brake pedal. With the help of the fluid, the piston can comfortably compress the rotors to slow down the vehicle. DOT 3 and DOT 4 are two most common types used in automobiles. If you are looking for the right fluid for your car, a comparison of DOT 3 vs DOT 4 brake fluid will help you to decide better.

What Is the Difference between DOT 3 vs DOT 4 Brake Fluid?

DOT 3 is the most common and popular brake fluid type of truck and cars. DOT 4 is also gaining momentum due to its compatibility with anti-lock braking system and traction control. The first one is the standard, low-cost option for average cars where there is little chance for the drivers to engage in aggressive braking actions. But, automobiles like racing cars and police vehicles that need frequent vigorous braking use DOT 4 fluid. Let’s find out some more points of difference between DOT3 vs DOT4:

dot 3 vs dot 4
A comparison will help you take a better decision.

1. Boiling Point

The major difference between DOT 3 vs DOT 4 is the boiling point – their tenacity to absorb water. DOT 3 is more prone to assimilate water because it has a lower boiling point. For this reason, it boils easily under hard and rough braking, which could ruin the braking components and cause subpar braking performance. For this reason, the DOT 4 fluid can easily replace DOT 3 but the second one should not be used as an alternative to the DOT 4 type until it’s absolutely necessary.

2. The Chemical Structure

Another slight difference between DOT 3 vs DOT 4 brake fluid is their chemical components. DOT 3 has a blend of ether and polyalkylene glycol whereas a mixture of glycol and borate creates the DOT 4 fluid. The glycol-ether blend holds very well in hot and wet conditions, which is perfect for regular vehicles where the brakes get heated up easily. On the other hand, DOT 4’s chemical ingredients that show a high level of water tolerance and stability under high temperatures.

3. Boiling Capacity

DOT 3 is the winner in this comparison section between DOT 3 vs DOT 4 brake fluid. It functions well in both water and open air because it has both wet and dry boiling capacity. DOT 4 has an excellent dry boiling capacity but it does not work well in water.

Which one should you choose? DOT 3 or DOT 4 brake fluid? Well, the first one is the best option if you are driving a standard vehicle. However, if it’s a racing car or you like rough driving, DOT 4 will take better care of the braking components.

dot 3 or dot 4 brake fluid
DOT 4 will take better care of braking parts.

Are There Any Cautions to be Aware of?

Yes, there are a few things to be aware of. Both fluid types eat paint, so don’t spill them on the car body. Also, they can react badly if mixed with other fluids used in a vehicle.

You should keep the fluids in tightly sealed containers. The moisture in the air degrades their chemical components. So, it’s not safe to use the brake fluid from an open bottle.

Out for a drive with the Cabrio, 2019 June 1st, Woerden

Today I needed the space in my garage, and I washed and waxed the DS cabrio afterwards. Then I took a fresh box of cigars and took the old lady for a ride through the countryside. And, at a quiet place, I took some photos,both with thehood up as down. The weather was fine and it was an enjoyable ride!

I think it will be time to start a new project, since the DS cabrio is in perfect shape, not everything iun the interior is perfect yet, but maybe I should leave that for a new owner… The engine runs well, both on LPG and Euro gas. Shifting is well, steering and light, everything is OK. And the airco also runs smooth.

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DOT3 brake fluid in my Traction Avant

The Traction Avant is regularly parked at our place for long periods of time.

Each time, the level of my brake fluid when I picked up the car was at minimum, while I had put the car away with maximum level.

The reason turned out to be that on almost all parts where the original meager mineral brake fluid could flow under gravity along a brake cup, it actually did.

The result was a lot of filth and an empty reservoir.

The residual pressure that keeps the rubbers sealing nicely, drops off after a certain time and then this above mentioned problem arises.

The solution turned out to be upgrading to DOT3 brake fluid. DOT 3 has somewhat lubricating properties which in my experience keeps the seal between cylinder walls and brake cups closed.

I’ve been using it this way since 2015 and haven’t lost a drop of DOT3 since.

An additional advantage is that because of the lubricating effect the brake pistons no longer get stuck as a result of the long downtime during the winter, in combination with the hygroscopic effect of the old brake fluid.

It was quite a job to get the old fluid out completely, flushing with methylated spirits, blowing crosswise until all the methylated spirits were removed at each end point.

Then fill up with DOT3 and do some serious bleeding.

DOT 4 is not a good idea in any case, at least not with the original rubbers.

The additives in DOT4 cause the original rubbers to swell. If you want to use DOT4 or any other DOT version than DOT3, replace all rubbers and cups of the wheel brake and master cylinder with after market (so do NOT use old stock) rubbers and cups.

Good luck!

Update 3-2021: Everything is still fine with the brakes, I did remove the front brake cylinders as a precaution, cleaned them completely, flushed them out and filled them again with new DOT3.  

CX hydraulic LHM pump in my Citroen ID/DS

Due to returning problems with 5 LHM pumps in my ID/DS I decided a while ago to get a CX pump, make it fit the ID/DS and replace the previous original ID/DS pump.

The problem with any original pump is that they all leak. Not during driving, but after a while, in the garage or in the parking lot.  I had 3 overhauled pumps from the larger suppliers but thay all shared this problem.  Not a lot of leakage but enough to get me in trouble in my parking garage.

On top of this, new MOT ruling is that a car, also old cars, may not leak any fluid.  So, it was coming anyway.

I had a LHM pump available, from one of the first CX series and this is what I did:

  1. pull off the pulley from the CS pump with a special puller kit(I bought my kit on aliexpress for 30 Euros including posrage). You need this kit since the newer pumps like from the CX use a press- on pulley.
  2. Get an original pulley that is alike the one in your ID/DS, or use the one from your car’s LHM pump. I used a pulley for 3 V belts, 2 for the feed side and i for my Airco.  Get the hole on the Lathe turned up to almost 16mm.  Not too  much or you cannot press it on the CX pump axle.
  3. Still in the lathe, turn the inside of the pulley to the shape of the CX pump’s outside diameter.
  4. Turn the pulley in the center so that the pulley is exactly in the right place (by measuring) , just not against the pump housing.
  5. I chose to put new metric M8 thread in the inside of the CX axle by using a rethreading kit (helicoil) for M8, for ease of installing the press-on pulley and for fastening the pulley with a standard M8 bolt.
  6. Turn a ring, inside 16,05 mm and about 8 mm thick, because the CX axle will come through the ID/DS pulley about 7 mm.
  7. Press the pulley on the CX pump’s axle, put the self-made ring on it and fasten the lot with an M 8 ring and bolt.
  8. Use thread fastener of any kind.
  9. Then, get the car and get the old pump out. I usually leave everything in, but my airco pump because this is really in the way.
  10. Put the new pump and tubing in, with new rubbers. I also replaced the sucking tube to the LHM supply.
  11. Then, fill the pump and hose with LHM and start the engine.  Woith the filter tube up, fill this with LHM till the pump works well. stop the engine, quickly replace the tube in the LHM barrel. It took me 4 times before the pump continued working.
  12. The result: Fast on her feet, and absolutely no more spillage and leakage!
  13. View te picture gallery for the details!

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